Bernese Mountain Dog

The Bernese Mountain Dog, called in German the Berner Sennenhund, is a large breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund-type dogs from the Swiss Alps. The name Sennenhund is derived from the German "Senne" (alpine pasture) and "hund" (dog), as they accompanied the alpine herders and dairymen called Senn. Berner (or Bernese in English) refers to the area of the breed's origin, in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. This mountain dog was originally kept as a general farm dog. Large Sennenhunds in the past were also used as draft animals, pulling carts. The breed was officially established in 1907.[2] In 1937, the American Kennel Club recognised it[3] as a member of the Working Group. Appearance [edit]Four breeds of Sennenhund The four breeds of Sennenhund, with the original breed name followed by the most popular English version of the breed name. Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Berner Sennenhund, Bernese Mountain Dog Appenzeller Sennenhund, Appenzeller Entlebucher Sennenhund, Entlebucher Mountain Dog Bernese head [edit]Coloring Like the other Sennenhunds, the Bernese Mountain Dog is a large, heavy dog with a distinctive tricolored coat, black with white chest and rust colored markings above eyes, sides of mouth, front of legs, and a small amount around the white chest. An ideal of a perfectly-marked individual gives the impression of a white horse shoe shape around the nose and a white "Swiss cross" on the chest, when viewed from the front. A Swiss Kiss is a white mark located typically behind the neck, but may be a part of the neck. A full ring would not meet type standard. The AKC breed standard lists, as disqualifications, blue eye color, and any ground color other than black.[4] Exact color and pattern of the coat are also described as important. [edit]Height and weight ranges Height at the withers is 2428 in (6171 cm) for males, while it is 2327 in (5869 cm) for females. Weight is 85110 lb (3950 kg) for males, while it is 80105 lb (3648 kg) for females. [edit]Build and proportions The Bernese Mountain Dog is slightly longer than it is tall, and it is highly muscular. [edit]Other physical traits The head of the Bernese Mountain Dog is flat on the top with a moderate stop, and the ears are medium sized, triangular, set high, and rounded at the top. The teeth have a scissors bite. The legs of the Bernese are straight and strong, with round, arched toes. The

ewclaws of the Bernese are often removed. Its bushy tail is carried low. [edit]Temperament This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2012) The breed standard for the Bernese Mountain Dog states that dogs should not be "aggressive, anxious or distinctly shy," but rather should be "good-natured", "self-assured", "placid towards strangers", and "docile".[4] Temperament of individual dogs may vary, and not all examples of the breed have been carefully bred to follow the Standard. All large breed dogs should be well socialized when they are puppies, and given regular training and activities throughout their lives. Bernese are outdoor dogs at heart, though well-behaved in the house; they need activity and exercise, but do not have a great deal of endurance. They can move with amazing bursts of speed for their size when motivated. If they are sound (no problems with their hips, elbows, or other joints) they enjoy hiking and generally stick close to their people.[5] Not being given the adequate amount of exercise may lead to barking and harassing in the Bernese.[6] Bernese Mountain Dogs are a breed that generally does well with children, as they are extremely affectionate.[5] They are patient dogs that take well to children climbing over them.[5] Though they have great energy, a Bernese will also be happy with a calm evening.[5] Bernese work well with other pets and around strangers.[5] [edit]History The Bernese Mountain Dog, like every dog, is descended from the wolf.[7] Historically, in some locales at least, the breed was called a Durrbachhunde.[8] The breed was used as an all purpose farm dog for guarding property and to drive dairy cattle long distances from the farm to the alpine pastures. The type was originally called the Durrbachler, for a small town (Durrbach) where the large dogs were especially frequent.[9] In the early 1900s, fanciers exhibited the few examples of the large dogs at shows in Berne, and in 1907 a few breeders from the Burgdorf region founded the first breed club, the "Schweizerische Durrbach-Klub", and wrote the first Standard which defined the dogs as a separate breed. By 1910, there were already 107 registered members of the breed. There is a photo of a working Bernese Mountain Dog, dated 1905 at the Fumee Fall rest area in Quinnesec, MI.