The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors and a compact square body with well-developed muscle. They have been described as multum in parvo ("much in little"), referring to the pug's personality and small size. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, pugs may have been responsible for the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingese and the King Charles spaniel. They have Chinese origins, but were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands, and the House of Stuart of England, Ireland and Scotland.[2] Pugs can suffer from a variety of health issues, including overheating, obesity and pharyngeal reflex. Two fatal conditions, necrotizing meningoencephalitis and hemivertebrae, are particular concerns for the breed. Care must be taken to clean the ears and the facial skin folds of these dogs.Description A black pug puppy The breed is often summarized as multum in parvo ("much in little"), describing the pugs' remarkable personality despite their small size.[1] While the pugs appearing in eighteenth century prints tended to be long and lean,[2] modern breed preferences are for a square cobby body, a compact form, a deep chest, and well-developed muscle.[4] Pugs have two distinct shapes for their ears, "rose" and "button". "Rose" ears are smaller than the standard style of "button" ears, and are folded with the front edge against the side of the head. Breeding preference goes to "button" style ears.[5] Pugs' legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under. Their shoulders are moderately laid back. Their pasterns are strong, their feet are small, their toes are well split-up, and their nails are black.[4] The lower teeth normally protrude further than their upper, meeting in an under-bite.[1] Coat and color Fawn pugs and black pugs are similar in every way, except the color of their coats. Their smooth and glossy coats can be fawn, apricot fawn, silver fawn, or black.[4] The markings are clearly defined and there is a trace of a black line extending from the occiput to the tail.[4] The tail normally curls tightly over the hip.[2] Temperament Pugs are strong willed but rarely aggressive, and are suitable for families with children. The majority of t e breed is very fond of children and sturdy enough to properly play with them. Depending on their owner's mood, they can be quiet and docile but also vivacious and teasing.[6] History Origins A pug from 1915. Hogarth with his pug, Trump, in 1745. Portrait of Princess Ekaterina Dmitrievna Golitsyna by Louis-Michel van Loo (1759) Moscow, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Pugs were bred to adorn the laps of the Chinese sovereigns during the Shang dynasty (before 400 BCE).[2] They were known as "Lo-Chiang-Sze" or "Foo". [2][7] References to pug-like dogs have been documented as early as 551 BCE by Confucius, who described a type of "short mouthed dog".[8] The lo-sze, or early pug, may have been the predecessor of today's modern Pekingese.[8] The pug's popularity spread to Tibet, where they were mainly kept by Buddhist monks, and then went on to Japan, and finally Europe.[2] The exact origins of the pug are unknown because Emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China, destroyed all records, scrolls and art related to the pug at some point during his reign, which lasted between 221 and 210 BCE.[9] Chinese fu dogs, also called lion dogs or fo dogs, were thought of as guardians, and statues of them were placed outside temples. The faces of these statues resemble Oriental short-faced dogs, such as the Japanese chin Tibetan spaniel, Lhasa apso, Pekingese and the pug.[10] 16th and 17th centuries The pug breed was imported to Europe in the 16th century by the Dutch East India Company. It is said to have become the official dog of the House of Orange in 1572 after a pug named Pompey saved the life of the Prince of Orange by alerting him to the approach of assassins.[1] A pug travelled with William III and Mary II when they left the Netherlands to ascend to the throne of England in 1688.[2] During this period, the pug may have been bred with the old type King Charles spaniel, but in any event the modern English Toy/King Charles Spaniel emerged with pug characteristics.[11] The breed eventually became popular in other European countries. Pugs were painted by Goya in Spain, and in Italy they rode up front with the coachman on private carriages while dressed in matching jackets and pantaloons. They were used by the military to track animals and people, and were also employed as guard dogs.